Have a safe and happy summer!
Social Studies: Attached below please find the answer keys to the final review sheets completed (Units 1-6).
Math and Science review keys are posted on Mr. Tjersland's and Mrs. Cicione's blog sites directly.
Social Studies Final Review Packet
Unit I: Native Americans
Key Idea: 1.How does geography affect where and how people live?
- What were the major Native American culture groups that settled in the present day United States?
The Inuit – Alaska; The Northwest Coast – Washington, Oregon, Northern California; Anasazi – New Mexico, Arizona; The Plains – Central Plains of the country; Mound builders – along the southern and central Mississippi River; Eastern Woodlands – Eastern Coast from Maine to Georgia; Iroquois - NY
- What factors led to the unique developments of each group? Give an example.
Environmental factors such a geography, climate and resources led to each groups’ development. Example is the Anasazi lived in the desert therefor they used clay for their artifact and homes and ate scarce desert animals.
Unit 2: Colonial Developments
Key Ideas: 1.Why would countries want to expand?
2: What happens when cultures collide or meet?
3: What changes did colonial settlement bring to the New World?
4: How did colonial government evolve?
- What led to the discovery of the Americas by Europeans? (push factors)
Europeans began exploring because in Europe there was overcrowding, lack of jobs and fertile land, diseases, crime, and countries wanted to find their own trade routes to the Far East (China and India) to get goods for cheaper prices. New technology in the 1600s made it possible (magnetic compass, etc.)
- What factors encourage colonies to develop in the New World? (pull factors)
Europeans began to settle because they wanted to find gold and get rich, fertile land was available, religious freedom, adventure, and for a better life.
- Describe the relationship between Native Americans and Europeans by explaining the Columbian Exchange, The Jamestown settlement and the Plymouth settlement.
The Columbian Exchange was the trading of ideas, goods, plants, animals and diseases between the Old World (Europe, Asia Africa) and the New World (the Americas). Almost two thirds of Native population will die from diseases brought by Europeans. The Jamestown settlement had a “rocky” relationship with Natives. Sometimes it was positive and helpful to the colony (Pocahontas) and other times it was adversarial (starving time). The Plymouth Colony generally had positive relations with the Natives (Thanksgiving)
- What were the three regions into which the thirteen colonies were divided? Explain the geographical difference between these colonies. What types of economies developed because of their geography in each of these regions?The thirteen colonies were divided into three regions: New England (MA, NH, RI, CT), Middle (NY, NJ, DE, PA) and Southern (MD, VA, NC, SC, GA). The New England region had rocky, hilly unfertile soil, short growing season, coastline with harbors, thick forests. The Middle Colonies had a moderate growing season, fertile land, navigable rivers. The Southern colonies had a long growing season, fertile land, warm, hot humid temperatures. The New England Colonies developed artisans, shipbuilding, trade, and fishing economies. The Middle Colonies had large farms, trade, skilled craftsmen, and artisans. The Southern colonies developed plantations growing cash crops such as tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton and sugar cane. These were “labor intensive” crops and needed a slave economy.
- Describe mercantilism? How did this affect triangular trade and the slave trade?
Mercantilism is an economic system where a “mother” country owns colonies in order to become wealthier. The colonies provide the mother country with raw materials and natural resources. The mother country then manufactures these into finished goods which it then sells back to the colonies. Sometimes, if the mother country or colonies did not have exactly what was needed, i.e. slaves, then triangular trade routes would develop so that each port could receive the goods they needed. In this way slaves were able to be transported over the Atlantic (Middle Passage) to the colonies.
- Define each of the following terms and explain why it is important:
- House of Burgesses – the first representative government in the English colonies that made laws for the citizens of Virginia.
- Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – the first written constitution; created to have rules” for the Connecticut colony.
- Mayflower Compact – a signed agreement by the men of the Plymouth colony while still aboard the boat The Mayflower, to establish rules for the colony to follow and thrive.
- New England town meetings – meeting held in churches that also were the town halls where members of the town could meet to discuss issues that were important to their towns and agree on rules.
Unit 3: American Independence
Key Ideas: 1: When did “the colonists” become Americans?
2: Do all actions have consequences?
3: Why do people have different perspectives?
4: Can an individual make a difference?
5: What do people need to win a revolution?
- Define each of the following terms and explain why it is important:
- Peter Zenger – challenged governor’s authority by printing the “truth” even though it was negative to the King and governor. Freedom of the Press.
- French and Indian War – a war between France and the Native Americans on one side and the British and Iroquois on the other over the land in the ORV (Ohio River Valley). The British win however, the war creates a huge war debt and increased attacks from Native Americans on British colonists.
- Albany Plan of Union – Benjamin Franklin’s idea during the French and Indian War for the colonies to join together for defense to beat the French (cut up snake)
- Pontiac’s Rebellion – a last ditch effort by the Native Americans led by Pontiac in the ORV to stop the British from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
- Proclamation 1763 – a statement from King George III that forbade the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains without an army to protect them in the ORV. Colonists did not want to pay taxes for the war debt or for this army.
- Navigation Acts – A series of laws passed by Britain to control colonial trade and allowed mercantilism to thrive as an economic system.
- Sugar Act- one of the first taxes imposed by the British parliament to raise money to pay for war debt; it is eventually repealed. An indirect tax that hurt the sugar growers in the West Indies more than the colonies.
- Stamp Act/ Stamp Act Congress – replaced the sugar act; this placed a tax on paper items such as legal papers, newspapers, birth certificates, etc. Colonists from 9 colonies gather in NY to protest and write a letter asking for the tax to be repealed. This meeting became known as the Stamp Act Congress. In its letter to King George it made clear that the colonies believed in “No taxation without Representation”
- Townshend Act – A series of taxes placed on glass, tea, lead, paint, and paper. Colonists respond with boycotts, protests, Sons of Liberty, tar and feathering, Boston Massacre
- Tea Act – a tax on tea that favored the British East India Company that led the Sons of Liberty to dump tea into the Boston harbor in protest (Boston Tea Party)
- Intolerable Acts - Britain’s response to the Boston Tea Party; Closed Boston Harbor, took away Boston’s carter (right to govern itself), allowed quartering of British troops, appointed a general in charge of Boston
- Which two sides fought in the American Revolution? Which side was considered the stronger? Who won? Why?The thirteen American British colonies fought against their “mother” country Great Britain during the American War for Independence. Great Britain was considered the most powerful country in Europe at this time and was predicted to win the war quickly and easily. However, the American colonists won because they not only had the home field advantage but the cause of Liberty proved to be a powerful motivation.
- What battle is considered the turning point of the American Revolution? Explain why.The Battle of Saratoga is considered to be the turning point in the American Revolution. After the Americans defeated General Burgoyne, it proved to the French that the Patriots had a chance of succeeding so they signed the Treaty of Alliance with the Americans. This French support gave the Americans much needed support in the way of money, military supplies, military leaders and men (m & ms).
- Why is the painting of Washington crossing the Delaware considered the “iconic” picture of the revolution?This picture symbolizes the determination, courage and strength it took for the Patriots to stand up to their “mother” country and declare their independence. Further it shows the cause of Liberty is one that is worth the fight.
- Explain the main idea of the Declaration of Independence? Who wrote it? Which political philosopher’s idea is it based? Give details about that philosophy.
The main idea is that there is a “social” contract between a government and its people. Governments are created to protect the natural born rights’ of men; in return, men agree to follow the laws created by governments. When a government no longer protects its citizens’ natural born rights then citizens need to stand up to the government and make it accountable. If it does not do so peacefully, then the citizens have an obligation to change that government violently. Jefferson writes this in the Declaration of Independence. He is using the enlightenment philosopher John Locke’s beliefs of a just government.
Unit 4: Historical developments of the Constitution
Key Ideas: 1: What is the role of government?
2: How do people solve problems in society?
3: What is the role of the people in a democracy?
- What was the Articles of Confederation? Include its strengths and weaknesses. Why was it created in this way?
The Articles of Confederation was the first attempt at a government that the United States tried. This constitution was purposefully created with a weak executive branch and strong state governments. They did this because they were afraid of having too much power in a central government after being controlled by the king. The weak executive branch could not enforce its laws, collect taxes, or settle disputes. Its only strength was in its Northwest Ordinance of 1785 and the Land Ordinance of 1787. Both of these set the rules for dividing and selling the land in the ORV and for procedures in becoming a state.
- Why was the event known as Shay’s rebellion significant? What was a result of this event?Shay’s rebellion was important because when farmers rioted in Massachusetts as banks took over their farms when they couldn’t pay their mortgages, MA realized the national government could offer no assistance to put down the rebellion. Recognizing the executive branch was too weak to carry out its laws, representatives decided to meet at Philadelphia to discuss whether to modify the constitution or change it all together.
- Explain each of the following:
- Constitutional Convention – delegates from every state but Rhode Island met in Philadelphia, 1787to discuss the changes needed to strengthen the Articles of Confederation. When they were done they had created the present day US Constitution. When 9 of the 13 states had ratified it – it would become the law of the land.
- The Great Compromise – it settled the problem between the largely populated states and the less populated states with respect to representation in the legislative branch in the government. The large states wanted representation based on population while the small states wanted it based on equality (every state has one vote). The compromise was to make a branch that was bicameral – two houses – The House of representatives based on population and the Senate based on equal votes.
- The Three-Fifths Compromise – as population counted towards representation, the South wanted slaves to count as people for representation in the House of Representatives, however they did not want them to be included as citizens who owed taxes. The North wanted them to be taxed if they were counting as population. The Compromise was that every 5 slaves would count as 3 white people for taxation and representation.
Unit 5: The Constitution in Practice
Key ideas: 1: What is the role of government?
2: How have our rights evolved? How are your rights defined and how are they protected in the Constitution?
3: What makes a great leader/president?
- What are the three branches of government and what is meant by the “separation of powers”?
The three branched of government are the: Executive – enforces the laws, Legislative – creates the laws, Judicial – judges the constitutionality of the laws. Each branch’s power is specific and unique and does not overlap. The idea was to split the power of government into 3 equal branches.
- Explain the system of checks and balances and why the founding fathers included it in the Constitution. Give an example.As a way to protect citizens from a government that became too powerful and abused its power over its citizens, checks and balances were created with the system of the three branches of government. Each branch has special “powers” or rules and abilities that can “check” or stop the other branches from gaining too much authority. Examples:
- Executive checks Legislative – veto lawsJudicial – grants pardons, appoints justices
- Legislative checks Executive – overrides veto, impeachmentJudicial – can create and pass amendments
- Judicial checks both Legislative and Executive – Judicial ReviewDeclare laws and actions of both unconstitutional
- How did Marbury vs. Madison increase the power of the Supreme Court?
The court case increased the power of the Supreme Court by giving the court the power of judicial review. This power allows the Supreme Court to declare laws and acts of the Legislative and Executive branches unconstitutional.
- Describe the biggest issue between the Federalists and Anti-federalists with regard to the Constitution. What compromise did the Federalists agree to that finally made the Anti-federalists agree to ratify the Constitution?
The biggest issue was that the federalists were for a strong central government and want the US Constitution ratified. The anti-federalists favored strong state governments and feared that a government that was too powerful would take advantages of its citizens without additional protections. They would not sign the Constitution without the promise of a Bill of Rights.
- George Washington was the first president and as such, he established many precedents. Explain what a precedent is. Give two examples of George Washington establishing a precedent.
- A precedent is something that is done that others follow in the future – like a tradition. Washing did several firsts as the first president because he had no examples to follow he had to set the example. Some examples of the precedents he set were: the two –term limits for presidents, giving a Farewell Address or advice for the next president, and he set up the executive branch with a “cabinet”.
- Who were Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson? Which two political parties did they begin and what did each believe?Hamilton and Jefferson were two of Washington’s cabinet members who had opposing views on how government should be run.
DEMOCRAT - REPUBLICANS
· Supported by educated, wealthy, city dwellers
· Pro protective tariffs
· Loosely interpreted the Constitution
· Favored strong relations with the British
· Supported by the “average” man, farmers
· Favors free trade
· Strict interpretation of the Constitution
· Pro France
- Explain what advice Washington offers in his Farewell Address.Washington offers advice to the next president about the following:
- To not become permanent allies with other countries – remain neutral (no BFFs – they will pull you into wars
- Beware of political parties – they may divide the nation
- No debt – to not have a high national debt that future generations will have to pay off
- Why did Thomas Jefferson want to buy the Louisiana territory?Jefferson purchased this territory because: 1) he wanted to have control over the port of New Orleans so that the farmers in the Ohio River Valley (ORV) would be able to trade their products down the Mississippi River. 2) By purchasing the land from France he would be eliminating Napoleon from the US’s backyard 3) It would double the size of the country.
- How did the War of 1812 lead to a feeling of nationalism in America?The War of 1812 was between Britain and the US fought mainly in the ORV and Canadian border and Great Lakes. The causes of the war were the British refusal to stop impressing US sailors and taking cargo from US ships at sea. Further, the British were inciting the Native Americans to start a war with the US. The victory for the US made everyone very patriotic. It brought the country together with strong feeling s of pride because the US had beaten the mighty British twice!!!! The world respected the US.
- Why did President Monroe issue the Monroe Doctrine? What did it accomplish?
After the war, the country went through an “Era of Good Feelings” when everyone felt good about being an American and very proud of their country. Other colonies in the western hemisphere started becoming independent such as Mexico. After Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, Spain quickly lost all her other colonies in Latin America. Spain attempted to reclaim Latin America as her colonies with the help of other European countries. This is when Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine which warns Europe to stay out of the affairs in the western hemisphere and the US will stay away from European conflicts. Further he warned that any country who tries to “recolonize” any independent country would be viewed as an act of war towards the US. This gave the US a period of “isolationism” for almost 100 years.
Unit 6: Westward Expansion
Key Ideas: 1: Was Jacksonian Democracy really democratic?
2: How does the movement of people, goods and ideas influence society?
3: How is power gained, used or justified?
4: Why would countries want to expand?
5: What happens when cultures collide or meet?
- What was “Jacksonian Democracy”? How did suffrage expand for white men during this time? Why did Jackson’s opponents call him “King Andrew”?
Jacksonian Democracy refers the 1820s in American history when the “common man” became more involved in politics and government. As suffrage expanded (voting rights) fewer requirements were necessary to vote. By 1828 most states allowed white men 21 years of age to vote. These common men voted Jackson who they viewed as a self-made man (rags to riches) into office – they wanted a “common” president to represent the “common” people. Once elected, Jackson did not always follow the rules which frustrated his opponents. They felt he abused his power especially when he ignored the Supreme Court ruling and ordered the removal of the Cherokee Native Americans from Georgia. But to the common man he was a hero who brought change with the spoils system and tried to do what was best for the average American.
- Explain what the Indian removal Act of 1830 is and how it led to the trail of tears.The Indian Removal Act was passed in Jackson’s presidency and it was a law removing all remaining Native American living east of the Mississippi River to be “relocated” to west of the river to Indian territory. Most of Indian territory was set aside in Oklahoma. The Cherokee Natives were forced from their homes in Georgia to Oklahoma – an 800 mile march – and about one fourth of the 18000 died on the journey.
- Define manifest destiny. How did the United States complete its manifest destiny? Which territories did it add? How?
Manifest Destiny was a belief by Americans that God had wanted them to expand the US borders from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The US was chosen because it was this “great experiment of democracy” that was working and needed to be in view for the whole world to see. The US completed its Manifest Destiny under President Polk – the expansion president. The US added Texas by annexation. It received the Oregon territory by signing a treaty with Britain. The US purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 and the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. The US receives the Mexican Cession from Mexico after it loses the Mexican American War. This land included present day California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Colorado.
- What were the positive effects of westward expansion?The positive effects of westward expansion:
- To start a new life
- Opportunity for gold leads to wealth CA
- Free or cheap fertile land sold by government – Oregon
- New economic opportunities; new trade routes, etc.
- New natural resources
- What were the negative effects of westward expansion?The negative effects of westward expansion:
- Conflicts with Native Americans – Trail of tears
- War with Mexico
- Conflict over the issue of slavery in the new territories – CIVIL WAR
- Difficulties crossing the mountains on the overland trails
- How does sectionalism begin to divide the country? Besides slavery, what other issues do they differ?Sectionalism is when different parts of the country believed their part of the country’s way of doing things was the best. The country was divided into the North, South and West. Each had different perspectives based on environment and economy of their areas. The North was against slavery, the South for slavery. After completing Manifest Destiny, slavery in the territories was now a big issue. Other issues were states’ rights vs. national government – if a state believed a law was unconstitutional that state believed it should not have to follow that law, Tariffs were a big conflict: the North in favor of protective tariffs and the South wanting no tariffs. The North favored government spending on transportation while the south did not.
- Explain the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. What issue was the country trying to deal with by issuing these compromises? Did they work?
Missouri Compromise – Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a free state but the South opposed this because it would give Northern anti-slavery states too much power in government in the Senate. There would be more free states than slave states and the South feared the North might outlaw slavery. The compromise admitted Missouri as slave state and Maine as a free state – one for each side so that the balance of power would remain even in the Senate. In the future, other states entering the country would have to enter in “pairs” – one slave, one free – to maintain the balance of power in Congress.
Compromise of 1850 - California quickly reaches the population requirement to become a state because of the people rushing there for the Gold Rush. By 1850 CA asks to join as a free state and will not consider being split into a North and South California. In order to give CA admittance the South demanded the Fugitive Slave Act be passed and enforced which made northerners responsible for returning runaway slaves. Further, the compromise called for allowing “popular sovereignty” as a way to decide the issue of slavery in the territories.
Kansas-Nebraska Act – a law passed by Congress that allowed the voters living in the Kansas-Nebraska territories to decide if they wanted to allow slavery in their state or prohibit it. Both pro and anti-slavery voters rush in to try and make the territory theirs which results in “Bleeding Kansas”.
All these compromises were trying to deal with the issue of slavery. Each worked for a while but eventually the issue became so large it began to divide the country. Eventually this becomes one of the underlying causes of the Civil War.