Grade 7 Final Exam Review Packet. June 2014
1. What kinds of geographic features made the Atlantic Coast perfect for fishing and trading?
Natural harbors, deep channels, protected ports
2. Why were Native American cultures so different from each other?
Different environments that they lived in results in different ways to get basic needs
3. Describe the Beringia Land Bridge Theory.
Theory to explain how the Americas were populated by Paleo-Indians. Land between Asia and North America that was exposed during the last ice age over which Paleo-Indians traveled.
4. What was the Columbian Exchange? What were some of the positive and negative aspects of the Columbian Exchange?
Transfer of plants, animals, ideas, disease between Old World and New World
+: ideas, plants
-: disease and death of many Native Americans
5. What was mercantilism?
Creating wealth by carefully controlling trade / colonies exist to benefit the economy of England (mother country)
6. What was the Middle Passage?
Slaves’ ocean voyage across the Atlantic from Africa to the Americas
7. What is the significance of the House of Burgess which met for the first time in 1619?
1st representative government in the English colonies – Jamestown, VA
8. What was the main purpose of the Mayflower Compact?
To create self-government for the benefit of Plymouth colony
9. How did the French and Indian War lead to the American Revolution?
Britain taxed colonists to help pay for the war – led to protests and protests led to revolution
10. What was Great Britain’s goal in imposing the Navigation Acts, the Sugar Act, the Townshend Acts and the Tea Act?
Control colonists’ trade & make money (raise revenue) for England. These acts led to protests and the American Revolution
11. The ideas that all men are created equal and that the people have the right to rebel against an unjust government are found in which document?
Declaration of Independence
12. Who were the Loyalists?
People who stayed loyal to the King of England during the American Revolution
13. Who were the Patriots?
People fighting for independence from England
14. Define the following concepts and tell why they were incorporated into the Constitution.
Separation of Powers: 3 branches: legislative (makes laws), judicial (judges laws), and executive (enforces laws)
Checks & Balances: prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful and prevents one branch from controlling the other two branches. Example: Congress passes a bill and President must sign or veto it.
15. Why do historians consider George Washington to be a great president?
Set many precedents for presidential practices still used today – cabinet & 2 year term
16. Describe George Washington’s foreign policy as President of the U.S.
Neutrality: do not make permanent alliances with foreign countries
17. What were President Thomas Jefferson’s motives in buying the Louisiana Purchase from France?
Doubled size of US
Kept Napoleon out of US
Gained control of Mississippi River
18. Describe the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine
U.S. told European powers to stay out of the western hemisphere and any attempt to create new colonies would be seen as a threat to U.S. power
19. Why was President Andrew Jackson sometimes referred to as “King Andrew”?
He worked alone and without the consultation of Congress
Disregard of Constitution – removal of Cherokee despite Supreme Court decision,
Use (overuse) of veto
20. What act of Congress led to the “Trail of Tears”?
Indian Removal Act, 1830
21. What were the U.S. methods to achieve Manifest Destiny?
War, treaty, or purchase
22. What were the results of Manifest Destiny?
Annexation of Texas, Mexican War & Mexican Cession, Gadsden Purchase, Oregon Treaty
Americans settle and farm the west
Indians are kicked out of their territory, population declines, increase of reservations
23. Explain how each of the following contributed to the start of the Civil War:
- Kansas-Nebraska Act
Allowed the use of popular sovereignty to decide slavery in a territory
“Bleeding Kansas” when pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces fought
- Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe made people understand how bad slavery was and many joined the abolitionist cause
- John Brown’s attack on Harpers Ferry and his execution
North: he’s a martyr to abolitionist cause, must work to end slavery
South: he’s an abomination and proof that the North is out to destroy the southern way of life; we must fight to protect it
24. Identify and explain the contributions of each of the following.
- Frederick Douglass: former slave, writer, abolitionist
- William Lloyd Garrison: abolitionist newspaper editor, The Liberator
- Harriet Tubman: “conductor” of the Underground Railroad, abolitionist
25. What did Abraham Lincoln mean when he spoke of the “divided house” in 1858?
The country was divided over the slavery issue; we can’t continue half slave and half free – we must be one or the other
26. What advantages did the North have over the South at the start of the Civil War?
More population (industrial workers), manufacturing, railroad, telegraph, money, navy, weapons
27. What event caused South Carolina to secede from the Union?
Election of 1860 – Lincoln’s election
28. What was Lincoln’s main objective in the Civil War?
Preserve the Union
29. What is the significance of the Gettysburg Address?
It encouraged the Union to keep fighting to restore the Union so the democratic ideal of government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from this earth.